Skin Problems

a. ACNE

Acne is a prevailing condition of the skin that is quite common among adults, especially in females due to certain hormonal changes

Acne occurs in the hair follicles and the glands producing oil, commonly known as sebaceous glands. These glands are present everywhere in the body, however, acne is more commonly found on the face, chest & back. The oil or sebum produced by the sebaceous glands starts appearing on the external layer of skin right after puberty. The bacteria present in the in the deeper layers of the hair follicle under the sebum release a chemical that reacts with the sebum itself that leads to the release of another chemical to form a pimple. The skin around the hair follicle is red and inflamed. Large painful swellings called cysts and nodules may develop & lead to scarring. These scars can either be depressed & sunken or bulging & hard.

Among several known causes of acne, the most prevalent theory is that of hormonal change in the human body. The variation in the rate of occurrence depends on person to person.

Acne occurs differently in different people and can involve varying lesions (blackheads, pimples, cyst-like pimples and whiteheads), different affected body parts (face, neck, chest, shoulders and back) and resolve in different ways (scars, redness and darker skin). A customized treatment approach to your acne is what we at Dermcos Skin Care Clinic specialize in. acne can affect more than just your skin, it affects your self-confidence and worth. Seek treatment today so that we can get your soft and supple skin back, thus restoring your confidence

... b. Common Skin Growths

As our skin progresses through our life, it has a tendency to accumulate different types of spots. Many of these spots are commonplace and easily recognized during your evaluation. The following is a list of some of these common skin lesions.

Skin Tags

A Skin Tag or an Acrochordon is a small benign tumour which is found commonly in areas where the skin forms creases (neck, armpit and groin). On the face, they usually occur on the eyelids. The size of a skin tag is usually that of a grain of rice. Skin tags usually occur due to skin rubbing up against the skin and are therefore found in skin creases and folds. Usually harmless, they are most often removed for cosmetic or aesthetic reasons. Treatment usually involves the following procedures:

Cauterization - in this process the skin tag is removed by burning it with the help of electrolysis.

Cryosurgery - in this process the removal of the skin tag is done by freezing off the tag with the help of a probe containing liquid nitrogen.

Ligation - The blood supply to the skin tag is interrupted.

Excision - In excision, the skin tag is removed by cutting it off with a scalpel.

These procedures need to be performed by skin care professionals.

Blood Vessel Related Lesions

Broken blood vessels can be seen as red veins present on the chin, cheeks or the nose. Causal factors may include childbirth, pregnancy, use of birth control pills, UV exposure etc. The most common and effective treatment for blood vessel lesions is Laser treatment. In Laser treatment, the visible blood vessels are removed by light absorbed by the blood that destroys the vessel. The vessel then disappears restoring the skin’s natural appearance. Laser treatments are very safe and produce gradual results. While large veins may require multiple treatments, smaller ones may only require a single laser treatment. This form of treatment is safe and has very few side effects. However, temporary discolouration lasting five to fourteen days may be caused due to laser treatment. Blistering, crusting etc. of the affected skin may also occur, but usually disappears in a few days. Sunscreen must be used on the treated area to hasten the healing process.

Milia

These are the benign lesions that most commonly occur on the face in infants and even mature adults, particularly females. They are the pinpoint white spots also known as "milk spots" that does not easily go away. At Dermcos Skin Care Clinic these spots are effectively treated.

Xanthelasma

These are benign, lesions that are yellow in colour and occur around the eyes in adults, particularly in females. They can be a sign of internal problems relating to cholesterol Treatments options are available at the Dermcos clinic.

Cysts

A cyst can be explained as a cluster of cells which have grouped together to form a sac. The cells which form the shell of this sac are very distinctly abnormal (in behaviour and appearance) as compared to the cells in the surrounding location. They may contain air, fluids or even semi-solid material. Cysts usually vary in size- ranging from microscopic to the size of a ball whereas large cysts can displace internal organs.

Cysts occur due to genetic conditions, tumours, defective cells, chronic inflammatory conditions, infections, blockage of ducts causing fluid build-ups, breaking of vessels etc. Most cysts are benign caused due to plugged ducts or natural body outlets for secretions. However, some cysts may be tumours and are potentially malignant.

Symptoms of cysts vary according to the type of cyst. Mostly, the patient will become aware of an abnormal lump. Cysts in the mammary gland may be painful, cysts in the brain cause headaches and internal cysts may not have any obvious symptoms and may only be visible through an MRI, CAT scan or Ultrasound.

A cyst can be treated through the following methods:

Draining:Draining the cyst using a needle is done if a cyst is infected or ruptured. The fluids or other matter in the cyst can be removed using this method.

Anti-inflammatory medications:Using certain anti-inflammatory medications such as Cortisone injections can reduce the inflammation in a cyst.

Surgery:Surgical removal of the cyst is usually used when draining has no effect on the Cyst. Internal and hard to reach cysts are also removed using surgery.

Moles

These lesions can be pigmented or flesh-coloured, can be present at birth or develop through adulthood, and not cause trouble or become a problem. These lesions are important because they can be associated with Melanoma.

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Keloids

Keloids are overgrowths of scar tissues occurring at the site of a skin injury. They usually occur in areas where trauma, surgery blisters, vaccinations, acne or body piercings lead to injured skin. In rare cases, Keloids are found in areas where there are no visible injuries. Keloids are different from normal scars in terms of their size and composition. The causal factors contributing to the growth of Keloids is unknown. Most people never develop Keloids but others develop them even after small mosquito bites or minor injuries. It has been said that some people are more prone to the development of Keloids than others..

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Warts

Warts are the non-growing benign skin growths that can occur anywhere on the body, which includes mouth and genital areas. Adults who are sexually active and immunosuppressed adults and children tend to get several lesions. They develop when the human papillomavirus, infects the top layers of your skin. Usually warts exhibit no symptoms, they can, however, itch or pain occasionally (especially on the sole of your feet). It is necessary that these lesions are treated because they are infectious, and spread with the direct contact.

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c. Eczema/Atopic Dermatitis

Eczema is a very common condition of the skin that tends to affect the young children, those who have hit puberty. There are a large number of people who still face this disease into adulthood. Intense itching (pruritus) is the often the only symptom seen in this condition. The skin in Eczema becomes quite dry (xerotic) and sensitive, that needs proper care and attention.

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d. Dandruff

Dandruff also is known as Seborrheic dermatitis, is a condition that commonly occurs affects infants, adolescents and adult irrespective of their age. It tends to be a common condition that varies in nature but remains mild. The scalp is to be the most affected and it can also affect the face and chest. Itching and flaking are often the major symptoms of this condition

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e. Hives

The medical term given for hives is urticaria. They appear in the form of wheals on the skin that that tend to be very itchy. these vary greatly in size. There are two categories of hives depending on how long lesions continue to develop, acute (less than 6 weeks) and chronic (more than 6 weeks). At times the trigger or the allergen is unexplainable that started it

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f. Itchy Skin

Pruritus, or the sensation of itch, is the most common symptom dermatology patients suffer through. It is a complex sensation resulting from multiple pathogenic mechanisms that usually cannot be attributed to one specific cause or disease. It can be totally devastating affecting the total quality of life.

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g. Sun Damage

The sun has a significant and profound effect on the skin. Some changes caused due to sun exposure are as follows:

Premature Skin Aging: The exposure to Ultraviolet rays of the sun also called UV exposure accounts for most premature skin ageing.

Other Skin Changes: Exposure to UV rays can lead to two common types of skin changes. The first one being thick skin in coarse wrinkles, especially on the back of the neck (cutis Rhomboidalis nuchae). The other one can be thining of the skin causing fine wrinkles, tearing of the skin as well as bruising. Other skin changes due to UV exposure can be seen as tiny blood vessels appearing on the skin, particularly covering the facial area. Changes in skin colour are also very common. UV exposure can lead to pigment changes visible as brown spots (solar lentigos), small white spots(guttate hypomelanosis), freckles as well as red areas on the side of the neck (poikiloderma of Civatte). Moles are also commonly visible in areas exposed to the sun.

Skin cancer: It refers to the abnormal growth of skin cells, commonly developed on the skin due to exposure to the sun. Protecting your skin from sun damage – Sun avoidance and persistent sunscreen use are widely endorsed by various medical organizations and individuals with the common goal of skin cancer prevention. A sunburn is caused by an overexposure of your skin to too much ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun.

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h. Rosacea

Rosacea refers to the chronic inflammatory of skin condition that normally appears as the blushing or appearance of flushing of the cheeks and nose, that can spread to the chin, forehead, chest, neck and back and the ears. Rosacea can grow up into persistent erythema (redness), cystic nodules, papules, and pustules. More severe cases can advance into rhinophyma, where the oil glands present in the skin become swelled that makes the nose larger and the cheeks puffier. Some patients never experience papules, pustules or cystic nodules and only face the complexities of persistent erythema and telangiectasias (tiny blood vessels). Only half of the patients face eye troubles due to rosacea termed as "ocular rosacea". This can result in dryness in the eye and burning and feeling of having something in your eyes.

Rosacea can occur in any age group including children, however, a fair-skinned adult between the ages of 30 and 50 are more prone to this condition. Patients suffering rosacea need to carefully choose their skin care products as wrong products can make your condition worst. Treatment regimens are planned as per the individual condition that helps in limiting the progression of this condition. Right education on how to avoid contact with all is also important.

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i. Skin Infections

• Warts

A wart is a skin disorder that is marked by benign growth and is caused by an infection from the human papillomavirus. The warts are non-metastatic and are treated mainly because of their unsightly appearance and because they tend to spread to other areas on the skin. Depending on the area, treatment of warts includes destroying the outer layer of the skin where the wart grows. This may be done using surgery, freezing (using liquid Nitrogen) or through the use of chemicals by injecting them into warts. Generally, multiple treatments are used to get rid of warts. More often than not, these warts reappear.

... • Cold Sores/Fever Blisters

Cold sores, that are commonly termed as fever blisters, are a result of an infection of the Herpes simplex virus. This virus can cause infection in any part of the skin, that includes genitals as well. After this infection begins, the virus tends to enter a dormant phase underneath the skin. Periodically, the virus comes forth in the form of infection in the same area. The lesion that appears as a bunch of tiny blisters that break, leaving behind a sore that slowly heals in about 7 days. New medications speed up the healing process and when taken regularly, can avert its recurrence.

... • Shingles

Shingles, which are commonly referred to as zoster, is a type of viral infection. This condition can arise at any age but is more common in older age The lesions come forth in the form of painful blisters that are present ony in one half of the body without ever crossing the centre line. The rash often clears up after several weeks but pain remains. If medication is started early then the rash is more likely to heal with a subsequent decrease in pain.

... j. Psoriasis & Psoriatic Arthritis

Psoriasis is a chronic condition that is mediated by one’s own immune system and causes inflammation of the skin. It affects more than 2% of the entire population. The main causes of this condition are genetic factors, environmental factors. However, the main cause of this condition is idiopathic and not completely understood. Skin, all over your body can be affected but is absent in mucous membranes.

Psoriasis is now not only considered exclusively to be a skin-only condition, but has several related comorbidities. It has has been estimated that up to 25% of patients develop arthritis, and imposes a risk factor for metabolic complications.

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